Biopsy: If an abnormality is found during the endoscopy or imaging, a biopsy is performed to confirm whether it is cancerous. During a biopsy, a small tissue sample is removed for examination under a microscope. The type of biopsy can vary based on the location of the suspected cancer. Common biopsy methods include:

Fine-Needle Aspiration (FNA): A thin, hollow needle is used to remove a small sample of tissue or fluid.

Core Needle Biopsy: A larger needle is used to obtain a more substantial tissue sample.

Excisional Biopsy: Removal of the entire suspicious area for examination.

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